Prospects for the development of the domestic micro-lending market are quite optimistic. In 2011, its volumes increased immediately by 34%, and in 2012 – by another 50%. At the beginning of this year, the microloan market was estimated at 36 billion rubles. By the end of the year, according to forecasts, its volume should reach 56 billion rubles.
The activities of such companies are regulated by the federal law “On Microfinance Organizations”. According to this law, such a business consists in issuing funds to the borrower in the amount of up to one million rubles under the terms of the loan agreement. This agreement is governed by the norms of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. In principle, you can create a microfinance organization quite simply and quickly.
The procedure is not much different from registering a regular company (the most convenient legal form is an LLC). The only main difference is that your company must be included in the state register of microfinance organizations. Without this condition, its activities will be considered illegal.
In order for your company name to appear in this register, you must submit the following list of documents to the Ministry of Finance: application; notarized copies of the certificate of registration of a legal entity and the constituent documents of the company; a copy of the decision of the founders on the establishment of the organization; a copy of the decision on the appointment of the general director (or other management body of the company); information about the founders of the organization; information about its location; extract from the register of foreign legal entities (if the founder is a foreign legal entity); certificates of payment of state duty (in the amount of 1000 rubles).
Samples of applications and other documents can be found in the annex to the Order of the Ministry of Finance No. 26n dated March 3, 2011. Information about the company is entered into the register within 14 working days, about which the company is issued an appropriate certificate. From that moment on, it acquires the status of a microfinance organization and receives the right to issue microloans to the population. As mentioned above, the activities of a company that is not listed in the register are considered illegal. The fine in this case is, according to Article 15.26.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses, 30 thousand rubles.
According to the law, a microfinance organization cannot attract deposits from the population in the amount of less than 1.5 million rubles under each agreement, act as a guarantor, issue loans in foreign currency, operate on the securities market, charge interest on early repayment of a loan and demand from its borrowers more than one million rubles, taking into account all fines and interest as obligations under the contracts. For all this, again, a fine of up to 30 thousand rubles threatens. In addition, in some cases, such violations may serve as a basis for invalidating contracts with you, that is, then you will not be able to recover interest from the borrower for loans issued to him.
The main risks that microfinance organizations may face:
- a high percentage of loan defaults;
- administrative liability for violation of the law;
- disputing interest for the provision of a loan, if the accrual of interest is recognized as unlawful.
Let us consider in more detail the process of creating an organization for issuing microloans. After registering a limited liability company and registering it, you can already start looking for a room to accommodate your office. Usually it is located in a business center. You will need a room with an area of about 30 square meters. m. Renting such an area will cost at least 25-30 thousand rubles, depending on the city.
You will also need to purchase office furniture (chairs, tables), equipment (computers, printer, photocopier, telephones, water cooler, etc.), consumables, stationery. Of the employees, at first you will need at least two loan managers (the salary for each in small towns is from 12-15 thousand rubles excluding taxes), a security officer.
Perhaps the biggest cost item for the maintenance of such a company is the printing and distribution of flyers, the placement of advertisements in newspapers and on the radio, the manufacture of signboards and pavement signs. It takes at least 50 thousand rubles a month.
The initial costs of opening such an organization include funds for issuing microloans. The minimum amount is about one million rubles. This amount is enough if you do not plan to open representative offices throughout the city for the first time. Microcredits are issued to persons from 18 (22) to 60 years old, subject to the presence of a Russian passport. The maximum loan amount is, as a rule, 20-25 thousand rubles for up to 15 days. The loan rate starts from 2% per day.
When drawing up a business plan and calculating key indicators, immediately lay down at least 50% of non-returns (but, most likely, this percentage will be lower in reality). With constant expenses in the amount of 200-250 thousand rubles a month, you need to issue loans for at least 700 thousand rubles a month.
As the experience of similar microfinance organizations shows, it is possible to reach the level of self-sufficiency in the very first month of operation. The projected volume of loans in the first month of work will be from 750 thousand rubles, and in six months this amount may increase by one and a half times. By the end of the first year, many companies open additional single-employee lending outlets in malls, markets, and high-traffic areas. As the number of such points increases, the volume of loans issued will also grow.